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FLUIDS

Objectives and deliverables

In an oil & gas company, when we are speaking about fluids, we are obviously thinking about hydrocarbons in liquid and gas phases. But numerous other fluids play an important role in the basin history and determine the chance to accumulate economic resources or not. Chemistry of groundwaters determine strongly the porosity and permeability of the reservoirs but also the sealing capacity of the caprocks. Waters can have various chemical properties determined by their origins (Marine, meteoric, surface, evaporitic brines, hydrothermal brines, hydrothermal diluted waters, deep mantellic waters, metamorphic waters…) and determined by the reactions with rocks, gas and organic matters. Non-hydrocarbon gases can also play a fundamental role as for example CO2, H2S, H2, N2, NH3… All these gases interacting with the rocks, waters and organic components of the geological systems. The fluids are also acting in the tectonic processes transmitting pressure until fracking of the rocks, reducing the friction in the thrusts and playing a role in the earthquakes.

Figure 1. Fluids in Foothills 

Our Ambition

Our ambition in the fluids project has been to integrate the full story of the basin related fluids. For this purpose, 13 research operations have been launched since 2016.

Our playground is the Aquitaine Basin and the Pyrénées Foothills. We are trying to integrate strongly the sub-project “Fluids” to the “Orogen” sub-project. Orogen give the structural architecture and the geodynamic evolution of the zone where our fluids are reacting and are flowing.

Starting with the Lacq reservoirs a first action ((1) PhD Alexy Elias-Bahnan) is dedicated to the diagenesis of the deep Lacq and Upper Lacq rocks. Combined to this thesis, the post-doc of Guillaume Barré (2) aims at understanding the origin of gas in the reservoirs and in particular the origin of H2S. In parallel, a mapping of the gases exhaled at the surface, mainly along the major structural accidents, is performed by a PhD (Nicolas Lefeuvre (3))  Outcrops of the reservoirs rocks are accessible in the “Chainons Béarnais”, the PhD of Geoffrey Motte (4) will allow to understand the dolomitization processes in several tectono-sedimentary contexts.

Exceptional Syn-Rift mineralization (Talc, Dolomite) has also been studied in order to record the chemical and P/T conditions of this critical event (Post-doc of Benoit Quesnel (5).

During the burial of the sediments and the collision, fresh waters are expulsed from clay formations. The PhD of Jessica Strydom (6) experiments this water productions by mechanical experiments coupled to various thermal conditions. And one action with the French Geological survey (BRGM Joachim Trémosa/ Hélène Gailhanou) aims at to model numerically the water production during compaction and dehydration of clays (7).

The H2S production by Thermal Sulfate Reduction studied by Guillaume Barré can have a major consequence on the karstification due to the oxidation of this gas into sulfuric acid. Dimitri Laurent is studying this process during his post-doc (8).

The relatively high temperature of the hydrothermal springs manifests generally the contribution of deep fluids. The BRGM is in charge to characterize this type of waters in a collaboration leaded by Joachim Tremosa and Frédéric Gal (9). In our findings during this project, the presence of abiotic gases (CH4, H2) in some wells, close to the North Pyrenean Frontal Thrust (NPFT), was a surprise.

The production of hydrogen by serpentinization is not so well documented and the PhD of Camille Tichadou (10) is studying this process with pure Olivine and Pyrenean Ultrabasic Rocks. Camille Tichadou is also studying the petrology of these Ultrabasic Rocks. The serpentinization reaction is also catalyzed by the presence of some metals. Samuel Barbier (PhD) is studying these reactions (11).

The crystallization of serpentine minerals increases strongly the volume of the rocks and is supposed to increase strongly the hydraulic pressure contributing to the fracking of the rock and to the expulsion of the gases and brines. The PhD of Bruno Leclère experiments the crystallization pressure question (12).

Finally, with Dimitrios Rallakis (Post-Doc, 13), we are revisiting the hydrocarbons production in the Mauléon-Arzarcq basin integrating the thermicity history and the geological structure detailed in “Orogen” and our new understanding of the TSR.

Fluorine from the Arbouet Carry

Dolomitization and Breccia; Mail Arrouy Outcrop

Our team

Team Leader

  • Eric Gaucher TOTAL R&D

Scientific Advisors

  • Marguerite Godard , Géosciences Montpellier
  • Raymond Michels, CREGU-GeoRessources / Université de Lorraine
  • Michel Cathelineau, CREGU-GeoRessources / Université de Lorraine

CREGU/ Georessources/ University of Lorraine

  • Alexy Elias-Bahnan (PhD)
    supervisors: Jacques Pironon, Cédric Carpentier
  • Jessica Strydom (PhD Student)
    supervisors: Jérôme Sterpenich, Dragan Grgic
  • Dimitri Laurent (Post-Doc)
    supervisors: Cédric Carpentier, Pauline Collon, Christophe Durlet (Univ Dijon)
  • Benoit Quesnel (Post-Doc)
    supervisors: Michel Cathelineau, Marie-Christine Boiron
  • Dimitrios Rallakis (Post-Doc)
    supervisors: Raymond Michels

UPPA (Univ Pau)

  • Geoffrey Motte (PhD Student)
    supervisors: Jean-Paul Callot, Guilhem Hoareau
  • Guillaume Barré (Post-Doc)
    supervisors: Guilhem Hoareau, Jean-Paul Callot
  • Bruno Leclère (PhD Student)
    supervisors: David Grégoire, Hannelore Derluyn, Jean-Paul Callot

Univ Montpellier

Univ Lyon 1

  • Samuel Barbier (PhD Student)
    supervisors: Muriel Andreani, Isabelle Daniel

Univ Grenoble Alpes

BRGM

  • Collaboration: Joachim Trémosa / Hélène Gailhanou / Frédéric Gal

Fluids team, Iraty workshop, 2019

Publications

Epigenic vs. hypogenic speleogenesis governed by H2S/CO2 hydrothermal input and Quaternary icefield dynamics (NE French Pyrenees).

Epigenic vs. hypogenic speleogenesis governed by H2S/CO2 hydrothermal input and Quaternary icefield dynamics (NE French Pyrenees).

Dimitri Laurent, Christophe Durlet, Guillaume Barré, Patrick Sorriaux, Philippe Audra, Pierre Cartigny, Cédric Carpentier, Guillaume Paris, Pauline Collon, Thomas Rigaudier, Jacques Pironon, Eric C. Gaucher. Epigenic vs. hypogenic speleogenesis governed by H2S/CO2 hydrothermal input and Quaternary icefield dynamics (NE French Pyrenees). Geomorphology 387 (2021) 107769

keywords: Hypogenic sulfuric and carbonic acid, speleogenesis, Multiple sulfur isotopes, Thermal water geochemistry, Pyrenees

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2021.107769

Migration of Natural Hydrogen from Deep-Seated Sources in the São Francisco Basin, Brazil.

Migration of Natural Hydrogen from Deep-Seated Sources in the São Francisco Basin, Brazil.

Frédéric-Victor Donzé, Laurent Truche, Parisa Shekari Namin, Nicolas Lefeuvre and Elena F. Bazarkina. Migration of Natural Hydrogen from Deep-Seated Sources in the São Francisco Basin, Brazil. Geosciences 2020, 10(9), 346

keywords: native hydrogen; H2 exploration; gas seeps; H2 venting; radiolysis; serpentinization; draining faults; intra-cratonic basin

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10090346

Synsedimentary to early diagenetic rejuvenation of barite-sulfides ore deposits: Example of the Triassic intrakarstic mineralization in the Lodève basin (France)

Synsedimentary to early diagenetic rejuvenation of barite-sulfides ore deposits: Example of the Triassic intrakarstic mineralization in the Lodève basin (France).

Laurent, D., Lopez, M., Combes, P.-J., Guerrot, C., Spangenberg, J. E. & Gaucher, E. C.(2020) Synsedimentary to early diagenetic rejuvenation of barite-sulfides ore deposits: Example of the Triassic intrakarstic mineralization in the Lodève basin (France). Marine and Petroleum Geology 119.

keywords:  Karst, Ore deposit, Diagenetic barite, Playa lake, Sulfate reduction, Fluid inclusions, Sulfur and strontium isotopes

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2020.104464

Rift and salt-related multi-phased dolomitization: example from the northwestern Pyrenees.

Rift and salt-related multi-phased dolomitization: example from the northwestern Pyrenees.

Motte, G., Hoareau, G., Callot, J.-P., Révillon, S., Piccoli, F., Calassou, S., Gaucher, E.C., Rift and salt-related multi-phased dolomitization: example from the northwestern Pyrenees, Marine and Petroleum Geology, Volume 126-2021,

keywords: Carbonate diagenesis, Dolomite, Breccias, Hydrothermalism, U–Pb dating, Hyperextension, Salt tectonics, Jurassic

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2021.104932

A review of H2, CH4, and hydrocarbon formation in experimental serpentinization using network analysis.

A review of H2, CH4 and hydrocarbon formation in experimental serpentinization using network analysis.

Barbier, S., Huang, F., Andreani, M., Tao, R., Hao, J., Eleish, A., Prabhu, A., Minhas, O., Fontaine, K., Fox, P. & Daniel, I. (2020). A review of H2, CH4, and hydrocarbon formation in experimental serpentinization using network analysis. Frontiers in Earth Science.. Deep Carbon Science special issue. 16 June 2020.

keywords:  experimental serpentinization, hydrothermal, abiotic hydrogen, methane, data and network analysis

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/feart.2020.00209

Impact of geodynamics on fluid circulation and diagenesis of carbonate reservoirs in a foreland basin: Example of the Upper Lacq reservoir (Aquitaine basin, SW France).

Impact of geodynamics on fluid circulation and diagenesis of carbonate reservoirs in a foreland basin: Example of the Upper Lacq reservoir (Aquitaine basin, SW France).

Elias Bahnan, A., Carpentier, C., Pironon, J., Ford, M., Ducoux, M., Barré, G., Mangenot, X., Gaucher, E.C. (2020). Impact of geodynamics on fluid circulation and diagenesis of carbonate reservoirs in a foreland basin: Example of the Upper Lacq reservoir (Aquitaine basin, SW France), Marine and Petroleum Geology (2019).

keywords:Carbonate diagenesis, Pyrenees, Aquitaine foreland basin, Upper Lacq reservoirs, Fluid inclusions, Basin modeling, Dolomitization, Hydrothermal fluids

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2019.08.047

Direct U-Pb dating of carbonates from micron scale fsLA-ICPMS images using robust regression.

Direct U-Pb dating of carbonates from micron scale fsLA-ICPMS images using robust regression.

Hoareau, G. Claverie, F., Pecheyran, C., Paroissin, C. Grignard, P-A.,  Motte, G., Chailan, O., Girard, J-P. Direct U-Pb dating of carbonates from micron scale fsLA-ICPMS images using robust regression. Geochronology, 3, 67–87, 2021

keywords: U-Pb dating, Carbonates

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/gchron-3-67-2021

Micro-scale chemical and physical patterns in an interface of hydrothermal dolomitization reveals the governing transport mechanisms in nature: case of the Layens anticline, Pyrenees, France.

Micro-scale chemical and physical patterns in an interface of hydrothermal dolomitization reveals the governing transport mechanisms in nature: case of the Layens anticline, Pyrenees, France.

Centrella, S., Beaudoin, N.E., Derluyn, H., Motte, G., Lanari, P., Piccoli, F., Pecheyran, C., Callot, J.-P., (2020). Micro-scale chemical and physical patterns in an interface of hydrothermal dolomitization reveals the governing transport mechanisms in nature: case of the Layens anticline, Pyrenees, France. Sedimentology

keywords: Dolomitization, fluid–rock interaction, porosity, replacement, trace element

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/sed.12808

Dataset for H2, CH4 and organic compounds formation during experimental serpentinization

Dataset for H2, CH4 and organic compounds formation during experimental serpentinization

Huang, F., Barbier, S., Tao, R., Hao, J., Garcia del Real, P., Peuble, S., Merdith, A., Leichnig, V., Perrillat, J-P., Fontaine, K., Fox, P., Andreani, M. & Daniel, I. (2020). Dataset for H2, CH4 and organic compounds formation during experimental serpentinization. Geosci. Data J.. Special issue DCO. 3 September 2020;

keywords: abiotic hydrogen, abiotic methane, experimental serpentinization, hydrothermal

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/gdj3.105

Quaternary tectonic and climate changes at the origin of travertine and calcrete in the eastern Betics (Almería region, SE Spain).

Quaternary tectonic and climate changes at the origin of travertine and calcrete in the eastern Betics (Almería region, SE Spain).

Larrey, M., Mouthereau, F., Masini, E., Huyghe, D., Gaucher, E. C., Virgone, A. & Miegebielle, V. (2020) Quaternary tectonic and climate changes at the origin of travertine and calcrete in the eastern Betics (Almería region, SE Spain). Journal of the Geological Society, jgs2020-025.

keywords: eastern Betics, travertine, Calcrete, Hydrothermal Fluids, Tectonic

DOI: https://doi.org/10.2138/gselements.16.1.8

Effects of smectite dehydration and illitisation on overpressures in sedimentary basins: A coupled chemical and thermo-hydro-mechanical modelling approach.

Effects of smectite dehydration and illitisation on overpressures in sedimentary basins: A coupled chemical and thermo-hydro-mechanical modelling approach.

Tremosa, J., Gailhanou, H., Chiaberge, C., Castilla, R., Gaucher, E.C., Lassin, A., Gout, C., Fialips, C. & Claret, F. (2020). Effects of smectite dehydration and illitisation on overpressures in sedimentary basins: A coupled chemical and thermo-hydro-mechanical modelling approach, Marine and Petroleum Geology (2019).

keywords: overpressure, smectite, dehydration, fluid generation,
fluid pressure, THMC, Niger Delta

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2019.08.021

Hydrothermal fluid circulations in the western Pyrenees: new data on stable isotopes, in-situ gas analysis and fluid inclusions.

Hydrothermal fluid circulations in the western Pyrenees: new data on stable isotopes, in-situ gas analysis and fluid inclusions.

Barré, G., Elias Bahnan, A., Motte, G., Ducoux, M., Hoareau, G., Laurent, D., Gaucher, E.C. (2019) Hydrothermal fluid circulations in the western Pyrenees: new data on stable isotopes, in-situ gas analysis and fluid inclusions. E3S Web. Conf. 98, 4.

keywords:  Hydrothermal circulation, Western Pyrenees, H2S

DOI: https://doi:10.1051/e3sconf/20199801001

Thermodynamic evidence of giant salt deposit formation by serpentinization: an alternative mechanism to solar evaporation.

Thermodynamic evidence of giant salt deposit formation by serpentinization: an alternative mechanism to solar evaporation.

Debure, M., Lassin, A., Marty, N. C., Claret, F., Virgone, A., Calassou, S. & Gaucher, E. C. (2019). Thermodynamic evidence of giant salt deposit formation by serpentinization: an alternative mechanism to solar evaporation. Sci Rep 9, 11720.

keywords:  Salt Deposit, Serpentinization, Evaporites

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-48138-9 

PhD Thesis: Fluid circulation and diagenesis of the Lacq Petroleum System : Impact of the geodynamic evolution

PhD Thesis: Fluid circulation and diagenesis of the Lacq Petroleum System : Impact of the geodynamic evolution

Elias Bahnan, A. (2019). Fluid circulation and diagenesis of the Lacq Petroleum System : Impact of the geodynamic evolution. Geosciences. Université de Lorraine.

keywords:  Petrography, Geochemistry, Carbonate diagenesis, Fluid inclusions, Basin modeling

DOI: https://docnum.univ-lorraine.fr/public/DDOC_T_2019_0221_ELIAS_BAHNAN.pdf 

Nature and Origin of Mineralizing Fluids in Hyperextensional Systems: The Case of Cretaceous Mg Metasomatism in the Pyrenees

Nature and Origin of Mineralizing Fluids in Hyperextensional Systems: The Case of Cretaceous Mg Metasomatism in the Pyrenees

Quesnel, B., Boiron, M.-C., Cathelineau, M., Truche, L., Rigaudier, T., Bardoux, G., Agrinier, P., de Saint Blanquat, M., Masini, E., Gaucher, E. C. (2019) Nature and origin of mineralizing fluids in hyperextensional systems: The case of cretaceous Mg metasomatism in the Pyrenees. Geofluids.

keywords:  Hydrothermal fluids, central Pyrenees, Talc, Dolomites, Mg-metasomatism

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/7213050 

Diagenesis in Mesozoic carbonate rocks in the North Pyrénées (France) from mineralogy and fluid inclusion analysis: Example of Rousse reservoir and caprock.

Diagenesis in Mesozoic carbonate rocks in the North Pyrénées (France) from mineralogy and fluid inclusion analysis: Example of Rousse reservoir and caprock.

Renard, S. & Pironon, Jacques & Sterpenich, Jérôme & Carpentier, Cédric & Lescanne, Marc & Gaucher, Eric. (2018). Diagenesis in Mesozoic carbonate rocks in the North Pyrénées (France) from mineralogy and fluid inclusion analysis: Example of Rousse reservoir and caprock. Chemical Geology.

keywords:  Rousse gas field, Diagenesis, Fluid inclusion, Fractured reservoir, Carbonates, Thermobarometry

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2018.06.017 

Cl/Br and δ37Cl evolution in seawater expelled during the compaction of MX-80 smectite.

Cl/Br and δ37Cl evolution in seawater expelled during the compaction of MX-80 smectite.

Strydom, J., Eggenkamp, H., Sterpenich, J., Agrinier, P., Richard, A., Grgic, D., Gaire, P., Mosser-Ruck, R. & Gaucher, E. C. (2019), Cl/Br and δ37Cl evolution in seawater expelled during the compaction of MX-80 smectite. E3S Web of Conferences Volume 98.

keywords:  Ultrafiltration, Br concentrations, Compacted clays, Compaction experiments, Diffuse double layers, Stable isotopes

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/20199812022